What is Hernia?
A Hernia occurs when the contents of a body cavity protrude out of the membrane in which they are normally contained through a weak spot in a surrounding muscle or connective tissue. Hernias by themselves may or may not produce symptoms as they are asymptomatic and can cause slight to severe pain. A hernia does not get better with time, nor will it go away by itself (except very small congenital navel hernia)
Types of Hernia
It is beyond the scope of this website to put up an exhaustive list or types of hernias since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices. The four major types of Hernia are as follows:
75% of all abdominal-wall hernias are Inguinal Hernia and are more common in men than in women (27% lifetime risk in men and 3% in women). In an inguinal hernia, the intestine or the bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal in the groin. Inguinal hernias are divided into two different types, direct and indirect. Both of these occur in the area where the skin of the thigh joins the torso (the inguinal crease).But both of these have different origins and for the purpose of treatment of Inguinal Hernia, it is important to diagnose the exact type of Inguinal Hernia. In indirect inguinal hernia, the inguinal canal is entered via a congenital weakness at its entrance (the internal inguinal ring), and the direct inguinal hernia type is when the hernia contents push through a weak spot in the back wall of the inguinal canal.
Incisional hernia develops through weak abdominal walls after abdominal surgery when the defect is due to incompletely healed surgical wound. Up to 10% of abdominal surgeries can develop Incisional Hernia. If the process of Incisional Hernia treatment is flawed, it can come back.
Umbilical Hernia is common in newborns, noted as a protrusion at the bellybutton (the umbilicus). It develops due to a weakened opening in the abdominal wall, which should normally close before birth but fails to close completely thus resulting in protrusion of intra-abdominal contents. It is a common type of Hernia and constitutes around 25% of all Hernia cases
Ventral Hernia is a hernia that surfaces on any part of the Ventral surface of the human body. It results is a bulge or tear in the Ventral surface that develops like a balloon-like sac.
Types of Hernia depicted
What are the signs and symptoms of hernia and how is it detected?
Hernias are easy to recognize as they appear as a bulge under the skin, which may appear on standing or straining and disappear on lying down. The bulge may worsen while coughing and sneezing. Hernias may or may not be painful. In most cases, a hernia can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the abdomen.